Persons wishing to attack a nuclear reactor or other nuclear facility have a wide range of options. They may seek to intercept or sabotage shipments of fuel or waste; invade a facility using armed force or deception, then proceed to steal radioactive material, blow up the facility, or (if it is a reactor) cause it to melt down; or seek to breach the containments of reactors or waste-storage facilities using truck bombs, missiles, hijacked aircraft, or other means. All facilities containing significant amounts of radioactive material must therefore be defended from a wide range of possible attacks.
Reactor and waste-storage security has been based on a concept known as "defense-in-depth." The defense-in-depth method requires that each nuclear facility be surrounded by concentric security barriers. The outermost barrier must be an array of fencing and razor wire strategically designed to delay and entrap intruders. The grounds near the fence, inside and out, are monitored by intrusion detection devices, and vehicles can only enter through checkpoints staffed by armed guards. Vehicle and pedestrian access is strictly controlled.
Safeguards Technology, LLC has successfully completed defense-in-depth projects at over 25 nuclear and energy producing facilities in the United States and Canada.